It also identifies the objectives and aims of the state. Sixth Amendment Act: The Sixth Amendment Act was enacted by the Jatiya Sangsad with a view to amending Articles 51 and 66 of the 1981 constitution. ˜bC�¡.Àå#)(:úSyänÜåÁ]yJAH1¡©/çÕP>Ÿ¥°- 1 \¨ãÌÚNñ¥¾@ Article 8(1) of the Bangladesh Constitution mentions secularism along with nationalism, democracy and socialism as the fundamental principles of state policy. The current Bangladesh Parliament contains 350 seats; 300 Members are elected by direct polls in their respective constituencies Whoever wins the most votes, regardless of turnout or proportion, wins the election. Fourth Amendment Act: The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act 1975 was passed on 25 January 1975. Unitary Government System: Article 1 of the Constitution provides that Bangladesh is a unitary people’s republic. The Chief Justice shall be appointed by the President, and the other judges shall be appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice. Eleventh Amendment Act: This Act was passed on 6 August 1991. II of 1975) 66 Substituted for the former article 116 by the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 2011 (Act XIV of 2011), section 32. This Amendment Act (i) declared Islam as the state religion; (ii) decentralized the judiciary by setting up six permanent benches of the High Court Division outside Dhaka; (iii) amended the word ‘Bengali’ into ‘Bangla’ and ‘Dacca’ into ‘Dhaka’ in Article 5 of the constitution; (iv) amended Article 30 of the constitution by prohibiting acceptance of any title, honors, award or decoration from any foreign state by any citizen of Bangladesh without the prior approval of the president. Article 27– The two types of power given to the Registrar under section I 0 of the Industrial Relations Ordinance, 1969 and section 5 of the Amendment Act, 1990 are dissimilar in their operation and field of application. 65. 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Moreover, through Article 59 of the constitution this act ensured the participation of the people’s representatives in local government bodies, thus stabilizing the base of democracy in the country. Unitary government means all power centralized under the constitution. Members are elected for a term of 5 years. Rigid Constitution: The Constitution of Bangladesh is a rigid. Ée—„?zßí-‡V–¦®Ú�Ëy„Ì�®îL¡¶G0ÆĞTy 2. Article 56(3), Ibid. The Vice President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President IXA in the constitution. –®0´Õh0ê83x^Á”•§Tx¨:¡™ABş_¿5 ´Àm eu»|>è¹:’R•¥T¥å©¼ˆ ,²m†Â™+¶.|è"hš‚‘¥òJSØZY�ÒF„Z [�ÒÁsV„fËh¤ˆlÿDe¯«-Ğp^‹­Ğ¢>"´ õqàÁPCyʉÚ[ÊSùKÔÂȇÂ9Ï [Hˆ Citizenship and Nationality (1) The citizenship of Bangladesh shall be determined and regulated by law. 65 Article 115 was substituted by section 19 the Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1975 (Act No. First Amendment Act: The Constitution (First Amendment) Act 1973 was passed on 15 July 1973. Establishment of Parliament (1) There shall be a Parliament for Bangladesh (to be known as the House of the Nation) in which subject to the provisions of this Constitution, shall be vested the legislative powers of the Republic: Inserted articles 7A and 7B in the Constitution after Article 7 in a bid to end takeover of power through extra-constitutional means, Basic provisions of the constitution are not amendable, In the case of a dissolution Parliament by any reason, election should be held within 90 days of such dissolution, Increasing the number of women reserve seats to 50 from existing 45, The Supreme Command of the defense services shall vest in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law, 11. Ë©00¡•gÎ,,íNá@Ç#ù[-Ğ€ ¦ÅL‡ÿim Article 22, The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. It amended, among others, Article 65 of the constitution, providing for reservation of thirty seats for the next 10 years in the Jatiya Sangsad exclusively for women members, to be elected by the members of the Sangsad. This Act amended the Fourth Schedule to the constitution by adding a new paragraph 18 thereto, which provided that all amendments, additions, modifications, substitutions and omissions made in the constitution during the period between 15 August 1975 and 9 April 1979 (both days inclusive) by any Proclamation or Proclamation Order of the Martial Law Authorities had been validly made and would not be called in question in or before any court or tribunal or authority on any ground whatsoever. Provisions were made through this amendment for the suspension of some fundamental rights of citizens in an emergency. The Constitution has 153 Articles arranged under eleven parts and 4 schedules entitled the Republic, Fundamental Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Rights, the Executive, Prime Minister and the … The 15th Amendment to the Constitution brought 55 changes, some of them reversions to the 1972 constitution, following the judgment of the apex court on the illegality of the fifth, eighth and thirteenth amendments. • Section 57 of The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (Amendment) Act, 2013 Ordinance as it might lead to further arrests and harassment of political rights defenders. CONSTITUTION OF BANGLADESH , 1972. According to Leacock, Constitution is the form of Government. (2) The people of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangalees as a nation and the citizens of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangladeshies. Topper BD Eighth Amendment Act: This Amendment Act was passed on 7 June 1988. iii. It was formally adopted by the National Assembly on 4th November 1972. Bangladesh Code is the Codification of all existing Acts of Parliament, Ordinances and President’s Order (except Regulations and purely amending laws) in force in Bangladesh printed in chronological order. Article 96(3), Ibid. CONS TITUTION OF THE PEOP LE 'S R E P U B L IC O F B A N G L A D E S H 4th November 1 972 P R E A M B L E W e, the people of B angladesh, having proclaim ed our Independence on the 26th day of M arch, Unicameral Legislature: According to Article 65 of Bangladesh constitution, legislative assembly is unicameral. This Act (i) amended articles 11, 66, 67, 72, 74, 76, 80, 88, 95, 98, 109, 116, 117, 119, 122, 123, 141A, 147 and 148 of the constitution; (ii) substituted Articles 44, 70, 102, 115 and 124 of the constitution; (iii) amended part III of the constitution out of existence; (iv) altered the Third and Fourth Schedule; (v) extended the term of the first Jatiya Sangsad; (vi) made special provisions relating to the office of the president and its incumbent; (vii) inserted a new part, ie part VIA in the constitution and (viii) inserted articles 73A and 116A in the constitution. Third Amendment Act: The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act 1974 was enacted on 28 November 1974 by bringing in changes in Article 2 of the constitution with a view to giving effect to an agreement between Bangladesh and India in respect of exchange of certain enclaves and fixation of boundary lines between India and Bangladesh. Major changes were brought into the constitution by this amendment. The presidential form of government was introduced in place of the parliamentary system; a one-party system in place of a multi-party system was introduced; the powers of the Jatiya Sangsad were curtailed; the Judiciary lost much of its independence; the Supreme Court was deprived of its jurisdiction over the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights. It amended, among others, Article 65 of the constitution, providing for reservation of thirty seats for the next 10 years in the Jatiya Sangsad exclusively for women members, to be elected by the members of the Sangsad. It contains 153 articles, one preamble and seven schedules. History. Supremacy of the Constitution: The Constitution Supremacy has been ensured in the Constitution of Bangladesh. a. Unicameral Legislature: Article 65 of the Constitution provides Unicameral Legislature for Bangladesh. Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh is a controversial clause restricting voting freedom in the Parliament of Bangladesh, written in the country's constitution. Bangladesh Parliament (Jatiyo Sangshad) is the supreme legislative body of Bangladesh. Through this amendment the parliamentary form of government was re-introduced in Bangladesh; the president became the constitutional head of the state; the Prime Minister became the executive head; the cabinet headed by the prime minister became responsible to the Jatiya Sangsad; the post of the vice-president was abolished; the president was required to be elected by the members of the Jatiya Sangsad. We have created this site to establish social network among the people of the world. We always try to gather updated news and try to share with you. It amended Articles 48, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 70, 72, 109, 119, 124, 141A and 142. The constitution proclaims nationalism, democracy, socialism and secularism as the fundamental principles of the Bangladesh. It has only one house, which known as “House of the Nation”. CHAPTER IV-THE DEFENCE SERVICES: 61. Independence of Judiciary: Article 22 states that, The state shall ensure the separation of the judiciary from the executive organs of the state. It provides the framework of the Bangladeshi republic with a parliamentary government, fundamental human rights and freedoms, an independent judiciary, democratic local government and a national bureaucracy. Mahamudul Islam, Constitutional Law of Bangladesh, 2 nd edition, Mollick brothers, 2003, pg- 146. Preamble: The constitution of Bangladesh starts with a preamble which is described as the guiding star of the Constitution. 1986, rev. II of 1975) 67 Article 116A was inserted by section 21 of the Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1975 (Act No. Democracy c. Socialism d. Secularism. The Constitution has also entrenched in the article 65(2) the principle of affirmative action as in South Africa, Namibia, Uganda, Argentina, and Tanzania, for fifty reserved seat for women representation in … Article 8 of Bangladesh constitution described the fundamental principle of state policy which is Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism and Secularism. Fundamental Rights: Part three of the Constitution provides for 18 fundamental rights. No authority can make any law which is inconsistent with the provisions of fundamental rights and if any law made shell be void to the extent of inconsistency. It amended the Fourth Schedule to the constitution by adding a new paragraph 21 thereto which legalized the appointment and oath of Shahabuddin Ahmed, Chief Justice of Bangladesh, as the vice-president of the Republic and the resignation tendered to him on 6 December 1990 by the then President HM Ershad. A Judge shall not be removed from his office except by an order of the President passed pursuant to a resolution of Parliament supported by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total number of members of Parliament, on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity. After Article 47 it inserted a new Article 47A specifying inapplicability of certain fundamental rights in those cases. Affirming that it is our sacred duty to safeguard, protect and defend this Constitution and to maintain its supremacy as the embodiment of the will of the people of Bangladesh so that we may prosper in freedom and may make our full contribution towards international peace and co operation in keeping with the progressive aspirations of mankind; The constitution of Bangladesh has no provision for ensuring the individual responsibility of minister. The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the constitutional document of Bangladesh. It may be noted here that the Supreme Court subsequently declared the amendment of Article 100 unconstitutional since it had altered the basic structure of the constitution. Tenth Amendment Act The Tenth Amendment Act was enacted on 12 June 1990. Supreme Command: The supreme command of the defence services of Bangladesh shall vest in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law and such law shall, during the period in which there is a Non-Party Care-taker Government under article 58B, be administered by the President. It was approved by the National Assembly of Bangladesh on 4 November, 1972 and it came into execute from 16 December, 1972. It is worthwhile to mention here that, Article 7(2) and 26 of the constitution of Bangladesh impose certain limitation on parliament in making laws. 2011) Page 9 • Source of constitutional authority Preamble • Preamble We, the people of Bangladesh, having proclaimed our independence on the 26th day of March, 1971 and through a historic struggle for national liberation, established the independent, sovereign People's Republic of Bangladesh; Universal Franchise: Article 122 (1) states that the elections to parliament shall be on the basis of adult franchise. This amendment provided for the direct election of the vice-president; it restricted a person in holding the office of the ‘President’ for two consecutive terms of five years each; it also provided that a vice-president might be appointed in case of a vacancy, but the appointment must be approved by the Jatiya Sangsad. Amendment only possible by the approval of the two-thirds members of the parliament. Tenth Amendment Act: The Tenth Amendment Act was enacted on 12 June 1990. The Act also confirmed and made possible the return of Vice-president Shahabuddin Ahmed to his previous position of the Chief Justice of Bangladesh. Article 1: The Republic, Article 2: The Territory of the Republic, Article 2A: The State Religion, Article 6: Citizenship, Part ii: Fundamental Principles of State policy, Article 8: Fundamental Principles, Article 9: Nationalism, Article 10: Socialism and freedom from exploitation, Article 11: Democracy and human rights, Article 12: Secularism and freedom of religion, Article 19: Equality of opportunity. It amended Articles 2, 3, 5, 30 and 100 of the constitution. Thirteenth Amendment Act: The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act 1996 was passed on 26 March 1996. Article 95, Ibid. A total of 16 amendments were brought to the constitution of Bangladesh since it was passed in the national in November 1972. Second Amendment Act: The Second Amendment Act 1973 was passed on 22 September 1973. The enjoyment and enforcement of those rights have been guaranteed in the constitution. Golaknath’s case.1 It was decided in this case that the term ‘law’ in Article 13(2) of Indian Constitution corresponding. This Preamble contains the legal as well as moral basis of the Constitution. (Article: 8). The following is a brief account of these acts and orders. It declares Bangladesh as a secular democratic republic where sovereignty belongs to the people; and lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles of the state and spells out the fundamental rights of citizens. Affirming that it is our sacred duty to safeguard, protect and defend this Constitution and to maintain its supremacy as the embodiment of the will of the people of Bangladesh so that we may prosper in freedom and may make our full contribution towards international peace and co operation in keeping with the progressive aspirations of mankind; The provisions of Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh are pushing the democracy in a back seat. Privilege is no vested right. constituteproject.org Fundamental Principle of State Policy: Article 8 of the Constitution provides four major fundamental principle of state policy. Unicameral Legislature: According to Article 65 of Bangladesh constitution, legislative assembly is unicameral. Responsible Govt. Article 65 in The Constitution Of India 1949. EDUCATION, LAW, The Constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law of Bangladesh. It contains 11 part, 153 articles, one preamble and seven schedules. Article 96(2), The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:45 This complete constitution has been generated from excerpts of texts from the repository of the Comparative Constitutions Project, and distributed on constituteproject.org. Article 27: Equality before law, Article 28: Discrimination on grounds of religion, sex, caste etc, Article 39: Freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech. To get something unique, stay with us. Ombudsman: Provisions for the establishment of an Ombudsman were inserted in Article 77. Unitary government means all power centralized under the constitution. Ninth Amendment Act: The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act 1989 was passed in July 1989. Parliament amended the Constitution in 2011, making a provision for adding 50 seats reserved for women and to be distributed among political parties in proportion to their numerical strength in Parliament (Article 65(3), the Constitution of Bangladesh, 1972). This Act ratified, confirmed and validated all powers exercised, all laws and ordinances promulgated, all orders made and acts and things done, and actions and proceedings taken by the vice-president as acting president during the period between 6 December 1990 and the day (9 October 1991) of taking over the office of the president by the new President Abdur Rahman Biswas, duly elected under the amended provisions of the constitution. … It is well settled that if an order is passed by any authority in favour of a person and the same is acted upon by him a vested right is created in favour of that person and the same cannot be … Article 65: Landholding by non-citizens (1) A person who is not a citizen may hold land on the basis of leasehold tenure only, and any such lease, … Fifteenth Amendment Act: It was passed on June 30, 2011. Article—102. A Judge may resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the President. not ensured: The Constitution of Bangladesh provides for a Westminster type of parliamentary government but it could not ensure the conditions of responsible government. Before the adoption of the Sixteenth Amendment, articles 96 (2) and (3) of the Bangladesh Constitution under Part VI included a provision on impeachment carried out by the Supreme Judicial Council instead of the Parliament, The results of Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) and its equivalent examinations will be published simultaneously …. It amended Article 47 of the constitution by inserting an additional clause which allowed prosecution and punishment of any person accused of ‘genocide, crimes against humanity or war crimes and other crimes under international law’. This form of government means that the government is run by cabinet of ministers headed by prime minister. Written Constitution: The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a written document. Article 34 of the Constitution adopted in 1972, and amended in 2014, includes the following provisions on violence against women: (1) All forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. The fundamental rights of the people in Bangladesh are listed under Articles 27 to 44 of Part III, and the jurisdiction of the high court Division of the Supreme Court to enforce the rights is defined in Article 102 of Part Vl of the Constitution of 1972. Incorporation of historic speech of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on March 7, 1971, declaration of independence by Bangabandhu after midnight of March 25, 1971 and the proclamation of Independence declared at Mujibnagar on April 10, 1971. Fifth Amendment Act: This Amendment Act was passed by the Jatiya Sangsad on 6 April 1979. Seventh Amendment Act: This Act was passed on 11 November 1986. It has only one house, which known as “House of the Nation”. Our mission is to provide something special and authentic information. This act resulted in the (i)  amendment of Articles 26, 63, 72 and 142 of the constitution; (ii) substitution of Article 33 and (iii) the insertion of a new part i.e. Generally the following are the classifications of the constitutions: The constitution of Bangladesh was formally adopted by the National Assembly on 4 November 1972. It amended, among others, Article 65 of the constitution, providing for reservation of thirty seats for the next 10 years in the Jatiya Sangsad exclusively for women members, to … TopperBD has been providing latest and authentic information of the current world since July,2017. —��‰¡åP1gk…(­R, %V[do]@BR.C*W/rC'P>TK"8U?A]17t+g=L9uj(.BI#nb@?>\OR^K*pYb>(CcT3%sIYip2jm^5i")+58hYm^>Mip)n1&3Y6F54W3;qD0Yi(3A@9W-o:Tdp8Whn^Y)^=3%+gkddbeOo#l>qUlN@3F@8=R,R^0GlZ4qDPZ]W[8u>QQrFV[+5?Xu6E`,D@NX,-T. However, one of the strategic advantages of Article 70 is the stability of a particular parliament for the reason that no one can change or leave the political party by which he or she is nominated. Article-55/3 provides that the cabinet shall be collectively responsible to the parliament; this responsibility cannot be ensured in practice due to the barricade created by the Article 70 of the Constitution. 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